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Constitution of The International Association for Suicide Prevention and Crisis Intervention

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Approved, IASP General Assembly, November 9th, 1999.

Article 1: Name and Headquarters of the Association
Article 2: Purposes of the Association
Article 3: Membership in the Association
Article 4: Duties and contributions of members
Article 5: Government of the Association
Article 6: General Assembly
Article 7: Council of National Representatives
Article 8: Council of Organizational Representatives
Article 9: Executive Committee
Article 10: Election Committee
Article 11: Judiciary Committee
Article 12: In General
Article 13: Disbanding of the Association


Article 1: Name and Headquarters of the Association

The Association is named the "International Association for Suicide Prevention and Crisis Intervention, abbreviated as "lASP" IASP headquarters are located at the registered office designated by the Executive Committee. The activities of the Association encompass all countries which are represented as individual or organizational members of the Association.

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Article 2: Purposes of the Association

Section 1: The Association is established to prevent suicidal behaviour, to alleviate its effects, and to provide a forum for academicians, mental health professionals, crisis workers, volunteers, and suicide survivors. The association is organised exclusively for charitable, educational, and scientific purposes. To these ends, the Association will:

a) bring together the available knowledge and expertise for effective action to address the issues of suicidal behavior worldwide and to improve the validity of the information being assembled;

(b) monitor the progress of suicide prevention activities on a global scale;

(c) encourage the collection of valid up-to-date national data on issues of suicidal behavior;

(d) create opportunities for bringing people together to exchange knowledge and experiences;

(e) make available expertise for the development of guidelines for suicide prevention programs;

(f) improve the supply of appropriate information to governments, relevant international and national organizations, groups and the general public on issues of suicidal behavior;

(g) raise the awareness of governments, relevant international and national organizations and groups, and to the general public about issues of suicidal behavior; and

(h) encourage policy makers and opinion leaders to assess the impact of their activities on the problem of suicidal behavior.

(i) make distributions to organizations that qualify as exempt under section 501 (c) (3) of the us internal revenue code or corresponding section of any future u.s. federal tax code.

Section 2: The activities of the Association will include but not be limited to:

(a) to cause to be written, and printed or otherwise reproduced and circulated, gratuitously or otherwise, periodicals, magazines, books, leaflets or other documents or films or recorded tapes; and to form and maintain a library of literature and other material in connection with the Association's objects;

(b) to hold exhibitions, meetings, lectures, classes, seminars and courses either alone or with others;

(c) to foster and encourage research into any aspect of the objects of the Association and its work and to disseminate the useful results of any such research;

(d) to co-operate and enter into arrangements with any authorities, national, local or otherwise:

(e) to accept subscriptions, donations, devises and bequests of and to purchase, take on lease or in exchange hire or otherwise acquire and hold any real or personal estate maintain and alter any of the same as are necessary for any of the objects of the Association and (subject to such consents as may be required by law) sell, lease or otherwise dispose of or mortgage any such real or personal estate;

(f) to issue appeals hold public meetings and take such other steps as may be required for the purpose of procuring contributions to the funds of the Association in the shape of donations, subscriptions or otherwise;

(q) to draw, make, accept, endorse, discount, execute and issue promissory notes, bills, checks and other instruments, and to operate bank accounts;

(h) to take and accept any gift of money, property or other assets, whether subject to any special trust or not, for any one or more of the objects of the Association;

(i) to invest the moneys of the Association not immediately required for its objects in or upon such investments, securities or property as may be thought ft, subject nevertheless to such conditions (if any) and such consents (if any) as may for the time being be imposed or required by law and subject also as hereinafter provided;

(j) to make any charitable donation either in case or assets for the furtherance of the objects of the Association;

(k) to establish, become a member of or support any charitable association, corporation or body having objects of a similar nature to those of the Association and to affiliate, or otherwise associate with the Association any such association corporation or body and to subscribe or guarantee money for charitable purposes calculated to further the objects of the Association;

(I) to employ and pay any person or persons to supervise, organize, carry on the work of and advise the Association;

(m) to pay out of the funds of the Association the costs, charges and expenses of and incidental to the formation and registration of the Association;

(n) to pay out of the funds of the association the cost of any premium in respect of any insurance or indemnity to cover the liability of the Executive Committee members or any of them in respect of any negligence default breach of duty or breach of trust provided that any such insurance or indemnity shall not extend to any claim arising from any ad or omission which the trustees knew to be a breach of trust or which was committed by the trustee in reckless disregard of whether it was a breach of trust or not; and to do all such other lawful things as shall further the above objects or any of them.

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Article 3: Membership in the Association

Section 1: Candidates for IASP membership must apply to the Executive Committee of the Association which determines acceptance by a simple majority. The Executive Committee has the right to grant deny or revoke membership for good and sufficient reasons, provided that the candidate concerned shall have a right to be heard before a final decision is made. Appeal against this decision is not possible.

Section 2: Classes of IASP membership are as follows:

(a) Regular membership for individuals who are regularly engaged in suicide studies, clinical management of suicidal patients, and/or suicide prevention activities, and who are interested in furthering the work of the Association. Admission is determined by a majority vote of the Executive Committee. Based on the citizenship of all regular and honorary members, each represented nation is entitled to elect one representative to sit on the Council of National Representatives.

(b) Organizational membership is for national or international voluntary or other nonprofit organizations (incorporated or unincorporated) working in the field of suicide studies clinical management of suicidal patients and/or suicide prevention activities under the terms of their governing document. Organizations can become members only when two of their members are already regular members of IASP. Admission is determined by a majority vote of the Executive Committee. Each organizational member is entitled to choose one of its own representatives to sit on the Council of OrganizationaI Representatives.

(c) Associate membership is for individuals and orqanizations who are interested in working toward the goals of the Association, but who are not qualified for regular membership. Admission is determined by a majority vote of the Executive Committee.

(d) Honorary membership is a special honor for select senior members of the Association suggested by written proposal, and elected by a majority vote of the Executive Committee. The proposal of a person for honorary membership can be made by any regular member.

Section 3: Expulsion or suspension of an individual, associate, or organizational member must be by a two-thirds vote of the Executive Committee The decision of the Executive Committee may be appealed to the General Assembly by the expelled or suspended member within 60 days of notification. The General Assembly will judge any appeal. Reversal by the General Assembly of the decision of the Executive Committee to suspend or expel a member requires a two-thirds vote. The general membership will be promptly notified of the expulsion or suspension of a member.

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Article 4: Duties and contributions of members

Section 1: The activities of the Association shall be supported by membership dues, voluntary contributions and net earnings of events such as congresses. Thus all individual and organizational members of the IASP, with the exception of honorary members, will pay annual dues. Members must pay their yearly dues assessment in a timely manner. The Executive Committee can, on special application, reduce or waive the membership dues for a specific member for a specified period of time.

Section 2: The annual dues for regular, organizational, and associate members will be recommended by the Executive Committee subject to ratification by the General Assembly

Section 3: No member shall be entitled to vote at any meeting of the General Assembly, Council of National Representatives, Council of Organizational Representatives, Executive Committee or any other meeting of the Association unless all moneys presently payable by him/her to the Association have been paid in full. Any member who does not pay dues within twelve months of notification will automatically be re-classified as an associate individual or associate organizational member. Membership is also canceled by the death of individual members and the termination of the legal status of organizational members.

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Article 5: Government of the Association

Section 1: The government of the Association is made up of:

(a) the General Assembly; (b) the Council of National Representatives; (c) the Council of Organizational Representatives, and (d) the Executive Committee.

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Article 6: General Assembly

Section 1: The General Assembly shall consist of all the regular and honorary members. Al1 other members are invited to attend the General Assembly however they have no vote in this forum. The General Assembly shall be considered in session when half of the eligible regular and honorary members are present. If this number is not present within 15 minutes after the time designated for the opening of the General Assembly, a vote of two-thirds of those present can declare the assembly to constitute a quorum.

Section 2: The General Assembly convenes once every two years, during the course of biannual congresses. The interval between the General Assemblies can be varied by decision of a simple majority of the regular and honorary members.

Section 3: Notice of every General Assembly meeting shall be sent to every member except those members who have not supplied to the Association address for the giving of notices to them.

Section 4: Upon a motion by more than one-third of the regular and honorary members, or by one-third of the Executive Committee, an extraordinary session of the General Assembly may be called. The results of a formal written poll, initiated by the Executive Committee among the regular and honorary members, are to be considered equivalent to a decision of the General Assembly.

Section 5: The duties and order of business for the General Assembly are as follows:

(a) to approve the minutes of the last General Assembly, as well as the reports of the President, the executive committee members, and of any committees or task forces established. The report of committees and task forces will be presented to the General Assembly by the Executive Committee, unless the Executive Committee chooses to delegate such a presentation to other persons:

(b) to establish the annual dues assessment for the different categories of membership;

(c) to consider the motions of the Executive Committee and those motions which have been submitted by regular or honorary members to the Central Offlce at least 90 days in advance;

(d) to consider any protest against suspension or expulsion;

(e) to revise the Constitution, for which the vote of two-thirds of the qualified members is required; and

(f) dissolution of the Association if necessary.

Section 6: The President shall preside over General Assembly meetings.

(a) The President shall chair every General Assembly of the Association or if he/she shall not be present within fifteen minutes after the time appointed for the holding of the meeting or is unwilling to act, the Executive Committee present shall elect one of their number to chair the meeting.

(b) if at any meeting no Executive Committee member is willing to act as chair or if no Executive Committee member is present within fifteen minutes after the time appointed for holding the meeting, the members present shall choose one of their number to chair the meeting.

(c) The chair may, with the consent of any General Assembly at which a quorum is present (and shall if so directed by the meeting), adjourn the meeting from time to time and from place to place, but no other business shall be transacted at any 8djoumed meeting other than the business left unfinished at the meeting from which the adjournment took place. When a meeting is adjourned for fourteen days or more notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given as in the case of an original meeting. Otherwise it shall not be necessary to give any notice of an adjournment or of the business to be transacted at an adjourned meeting.

Section 7: Voting procedures at General Assembly meetings

(a) Unless otherwise prescribed in special regulations of the Constitution, all elections and decisions are determined by a simple majority.

(b) At any General Assembly a resolution put to the vote of the meeting shall be decided on a show of hands unless a written ballot is demanded (before or on, but not afer, the declaration of the result of the show of hands):

(i) by the chair; or

(ii) by at least one-third of voting members.

(c) If a resolution concerns an individual member it shall always be decided by written ballot.

(d) Unless a written ballot is so demanded, a declaration by the chair that a resolution has on a show of hands been carried, carried unanimously, or lost, and an entry to that effect in the minutes of proceedings of the Association shall be conclusive evidence of the fact without proof of the number or proportion of the votes recorded in favor of or against such resolution.

(e) The demand for a written ballot may be withdrawn before the ballots are counted, but only with the consent of the chair. If the demand for a written ballot is withdrawn after a show of hands but before ballots are counted, the result declared concerning the show of hands will be considered valid and binding.

(f) Votes shall be given personally or by proxy, whether on a show of hands or on a written ballot each member being entitled to one vote for him/herself and one additional vote for each verified instrument of proxy held.

(g) The instrument appointing a proxy shall be in writing under the hand of the member. A proxy must be an individual qualified to vote in his/her own stead as a regular or honorary member.

(h) The instrument appointing a proxy shall be deposited with the General secretary, not less than twelve hours before the time for holding the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the person named in the instrument proposes to vote, or in the case of a written ballot, not less than twelve hours before the time appointed for the taking of the poll, and in default the instrument of proxy shall not be treated as valid.

(i) An instrument appointing a proxy shall be in the following form or a form as near thereto as circumstances admit.

I (insert name in clear print) of (insert home city and nationality), being a member of the above named Association, hereby appoint (insert name, home city, and nationality of first choice for proxy) or failing him/her (insert name, home city, and nationality of second choice for proxy) as my proxy to vote for me on my behalf at the General Assembly meeting to be held on (insert the indicated day and date) and at any adjournment thereof.

Signed this (insert date of signature, then add personal signature).

(j) This instrument appointing a proxy shall be deemed to confer authority to demand or join in demanding a written ballot.

(k) A written ballot demanded on the election of a chair or on a question of adjournment, shall be taken immediately. A written ballot demanded on any other question shall be taken at such time and in such a manner as the chair of the meeting directs, not being more than sixty days after the written ballot is demanded, and any business other than that upon which a written ballot has been demanded may proceed pending the tallying of the written ballot. The result of the written ballot shall be deemed to be the resolution of the meeting at which the written ballot was demanded.

(I) No notice need be given of a written ballot not taken immediately if the time and the place at which it is to be taken are announced at the meeting at which it is demanded. In other cases at least seven clear days' notice shall be given specifying the time and place at which the written ballot is to be taken.

(m) No objection shall be raised to the qualification of any voter except at the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the vote objected to is tendered, and every vote not disallowed at the meeting shall be valid. Any objection made in due time shall be referred to the chair whose decision shall be final and conclusive.

(n) A resolution in writing signed by all the members entitled to receive notice of and to attend and vote at General Assembly meetings shall be as valid and effective as if it had been passed at a general meeting of the Association duly convened and held. Any such resolution in writing may consist of two or more documents in like form each signed by one or more members.

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Article 7: Council of National Representatives

Section 1: Once every four years, regular and honorary members will elect one National Representative for their own country of citizenship. The vote for National Representatives will be conducted by mail ballot under the supervision of the Election Committee coinciding with biannual elections for the Executive Committee. In case of a tie vote, a second ballot will be issued to determine a winner. If the second ballot results in a tie vote, the winner will be chosen by drawing lots among the tied parties. The term of office for a National Representative will be four years. Terms will be staggered, so that in a given election National Representatives will be replaced for only half of the member countries. IASP members may be elected to two but never more than two four-year terms as National Representative.

Section 2: The Council of National Representatives shall elect a Chairperson and a Deputy Chairperson from among themselves at a Council meeting every two years. The Chairperson shall serve as a member of the Executive Committee. IASP members may be elected to two but never more than two two-year terms as Chairperson or Deputy Chairperson of the Council of National Representatives.

Section 3: The proceedings of the Council of National Representatives shall be regulated in the same way as the general meetings of the Association as set out in these Articles except that the quorum of the Council shall be one-third of its members.

Section 4: Votes shall be given personally or by proxy whether on a show of hands or on a written ballot, each member being entitled to one vote for him/herself and one additional vote for each verified instrument of proxy held.

(a) The instrument appointing a proxy shall be in writing under the hand of the member. A proxy must be an individual qualified to vote in his/her own stead as a regular or honorary member.

(b) The instrument appointing a proxy shall be deposited at the registered office of the General Secretariat, not less than twelve hours before the time for holding the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the person named in the instrument proposes to vote, or in the case of a written ballot not less than twelve hours before the time appointed for the taking of the poll, and in default the instrument of proxy shall not be treated as valid.

(c) An instrument appointing a proxy shall be in the following form or a form as near thereto as circumstances admit.

The International Association for Suicide Prevention

I (insert name in clear print) of (insert home city and nationality), being a member of the above named Association hereby appoint (insert name, home city, and nationality of first choice for proxy) or failing him/her (insert name, home city, and nationality of second choice for proxy) as my proxy to vote for me on my behalf at the Council of National Representatives meeting to be held on (insert the indicated day and date) and at any adjournment thereof.

Signed this (insert date of signature, then add personal signature).

Section 5: Upon a motion by more than one-third of the Council of National Representatives, or by one-half of the Executive Committee, an extraordinary session of the Council of National Representatives may be called. The results of a formal written ballot Initiated by the Executive Committee among the members of the Council of National Representatives, are to be considered equivalent to a decision of the Council of National Representatives.

Section 6. The duties of the Council of National Representatives shall be to:

(a) to elect a Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson of the Council of National Representatives;

(b) to approve the minutes of the last Council of National Representatives as well as the reports of the President the executive committee members and of any committees or task forces established. The report of committees and task forces will be presented to the Council of National Representatives by the Executive Committee, unless the Executive Committee chooses to delegate such a presentation to other persons;

(c) to consider the motions of the Executive Committee and those motions which have been submitted by organizational members to the Central Office in advance of the meeting day;

(d) select future sites for biannual IASP Congresses;

(e) propose and recommend policy and guidelines for the Association;

(f) propose and recommend tasks that need to be carried out by the Executive Committee; and

(g) ratify the work of the Executive Committee.

Section 7: The Council of National Representatives may appoint scientific, technical, and administrative committees. These committees do not have rights of decision but rather are to present conclusions and recommendations to the Council of National Representatives.

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Article 8: Council of Organizational Representatives

Section 1: The Council of Organizational Representatives shall consist of the collection of duly authorized delegates (one per organization) from all organizational members, with the following exception.

Section 2: Any organization which is a member of the Association may by resolution of its governing body authorize such person as it thinks ft to act as its representative at any meeting of the Association. At the beginning of each calendar year each organizational member shall convey to the Association's registered office the identity of the organization's duly authorized representative, with any attendant term limits. A vote given or written ballot demanded by the duly authorized representative of an organizational member shall be unless notice of a change in representation was received by the Association at the registered office before the commencement of the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the vote is given or the written ballot demanded or (in the case of a written ballot taken otherwise than on the same day as the meeting or adjourned meeting) the time appointed for taking the written ballot.

Section 3: The Council of Organizational Representatives convenes once every two years, during the course of biannual congresses. The interval between the Organizational Assemblies can be varied by decision of a simple majority of the organizational members. The Council of Organizational Representatives shall be considered in session when half of the eligible organizational members are present. If this number is not present within 15 minutes after the time designated for the opening of the Council of Organizational Representatives, a vote of two-thirds of those present can declare the assembly to constitute a quorum. Unless otherwise prescribed in special regulations of the Constitution, all elections and decisions are determined by a simple majority.

Section 4: Votes shall be given personally or by proxy, whether on a show of hands or on a written ballot each member being entitled to one vote for him/herself and one additional vote for each verified instrument of proxy held.

(a) The instrument appointing a proxy shall be in writing under the hand of the member. A proxy must be an individual qualified to vote in his/her own stead as a regular or honorary member.

(b) The instrument appointing a proxy shall be deposited at the registered office of the General Secretariat, not less than twelve hours before the time for holding the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the person named in the instrument proposes to vote, or in the case of a written ballot, not less than twelve hours before the time appointed for the taking of the poll, and in default the instrument of proxy shall not be treated as valid.

(c) An instrument appointing a proxy shall be in the following form or a form as near thereto as circumstances admit.

The International Association for Suicide Prevention

I (insert name in clear print) of (insert home city and nationality), being a member of the above named Association, hereby appoint (insert name, home city, and nationality of first choice for proxy) or failing him/her (insert name, home city, and nationality of second choice for proxy) as my proxy to vote for me on my behalf at the Council of Organizational Representatives meeting to be held on (insert the indicated day and date) and at any adjournment thereof.

Signed this (insert date of signature, then add personal signature).

Section 5: The Council of Organizational Representatives shall elect a Chairperson and a Deputy Chairperson from among themselves at a Council meeting every two years. The Chairperson shall serve as a member of the Executive Committee. IASP members may be elected to two but never more than two two-year terms as Chairperson or Deputy Chairperson of the Council of Organizational Representatives.

Section 6: The proceedings of the Council of Organizational Representatives shall be regulated in the same way as the general meetings of the Association as set out in this Constitution except that the quorum of the Council shall be one-third of its members.

Section 7: Upon a motion by more than one-third of the Council of Organizational Representatives, or by one-half of the Executive Committee, an extraordinary session of the Council of Organizational Representatives may be called. The results of a formal written ballot, initiated by the Executive Committee among the members of the Council of Organizational Representatives, are to be considered equivalent to a decision of the Council of Organizational Representatives.

Section 8: The duties for the Council of Organizational Representatives are as follows:

(a) to elect a Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson of the Council of Organizational Representatives;

(b) to approve the minutes of the last Council of Organizational Representatives, as well as the reports of the President, the other executive committee members and of any committees or task forces established. The report of committees and task forces will be presented to the Council of Organizational Representatives by the Executive Committee, unless the Executive Committee chooses to delegate such a presentation to other persons;

(c) to consider the motions of the Executive Committee and those motions which have been submitted by organizational members to the Central Office in advance of the meeting day;

(d) propose and recommend policy and guidelines for the Association; and

(e) propose and recommend tasks that need to be carried out by the Executive Committee.

Section 9: The Council of Organizational Representatives may appoint scientific, technical' and administrative committees. These committees do not have rights of decision but rather are to present conclusions and recommendations to the Council of Organizational Representatives.

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Article 9: Executive Committee

Section 1: The Executive Committee shall be composed of a President, a General Secretary, a Treasurer, three Vice-Presidents, the chairperson of the Council of National Representatives, and the chairperson of the Council of Organizational Representatives.

Section 2: The President General Secretary Treasurer and three Vice-Presidents are elected by the members, in secret mail ballot. The President, General Secretary, Treasurer, and three Vice-Presidents will be elected every two years by the members. The President, General Secretary, Treasurer, and three Vice-Presidents shall be eligible for re-election for two further terms of two years but none may serve on the Executive Committee for more than six uninterrupted years and none may hold the same position for more than four years. On the expiration of three consecutive two-year terms four years must elapse before the retiring President, General Secretary, Treasurer, and three Vice-Presidents shall again be eligible for election. The maximum number of years that may be sewed by any members of the executive committee shall be twelve years.

Section 3: The terms of office for the President, General Secretary, Treasurer, and three Vice-Presidents, as well as chairpersons and deputy chairpersons of the two Councils of the Association will extend from one General Assembly to the next.

Section 4: The President or in his/her absence one of his/her delegates designated in writing will represent the Association formally in dealing with authorities and third parties will execute the decisions of the General Assembly, the Council of National Representatives, the Council of Organizational Representatives, and the Executive Committee; will call the Executive Committee into session: and will preside in assemblies and meetings of the Association.

Section 5: The duties of the General Secretary shall include:

(a) Discharge all duties assigned to him/her by the General Assembly, the Council of National Representatives, the Council of Organizational Representatives, and the Executive Committee.

(b) Regular presentation of administrative reports to the Executive Committee and to the members.

(c) Maintain the archives of the Association.

Session 6: The Treasurer shall prepare financial reports for the Executive Committee and the General Assembly.

Section 7: In case of a vacancy in the office the President, the Executive Committee shall immediately hold a meeting to elect an Acting President who shall serve for the remainder of the unfilled term. In case of a vacancy in the office of executive committee members no replacements will be sought unless a total of three executive committee members have vacated their positions. In the latter situation, the Executive Committee shall immediately hold an election by sending ballots to the regular and honorary members, in accordance with voting regulations as set forth in this Constitution.

Section 8: The General Assembly may by ordinary resolution remove the President or any executive committee member before the expiration of his/her term of office. The General Assembly may by ordinary resolution appoint another person in place of an executive committee member removed by the General Assembly.

Section 9: The office of an Executive Committee member shall be vacated if the member:

(a) has been incapable by reason of somatic or mental disorder, illness, or injury of managing and administering his/her property and affairs for a period exceeding six months,

(b) resigns his/her office by written notice to the Association;

(c) is absent without the permission of the remainder of the Executive Committee from all their meetings held within a period of twelve months and the remainder of the Executive Committee resolves that the office should be declared vacated; or

(d) is removed for good and sufficient reason by an unanimous decision of all the remainder of the Executive Committee, provided that the member concerned shall have the right to be heard by the Executive Committee before a final decision is made.

Section 10: The duties of the Executive Committee are as follows:

(a) representation of the IASP and conduct of that portion of the business of the Association that does not fall within the jurisdiction of the General Assembly, the Council of National Representatives, or the Council of Organizational Representatives.

(b) Calling the General Assembly, the Council of National Representatives and the Council of Organizational Representatives into regular session, and preparation of the agenda for the General Assembly:

(c) Appointment of scientific technical and administrative bodies. These bodies do not have rights of decision bui rather are to present conclusions and recommendations to the Executive Committee. The Council of National Representatives and the Council of Organizational Representatives may also appoint their own separate bodies, which do not have rights of decision but rather are to present conclusions and recommendations to the appointing Council;

(d) Decision over applications for membership;

(e) preparation of the budget and payment of all expenses properly incurred according to the budget. All bank checks and other negotiable instruments, and all receipts for moneys paid to the Association, shall be signed, drawn, accepted endorsed or otherwise executed, as the case may be, in such manner as the Executive Committee shall from time to time determine, provided that all checks shall be signed by not less than two members of the Executive Committee;

(f) presentation of working and accounting reports to the General Assembly;

(g) the Executive Committee shall cause minutes to be made of:

(i) all appointments made by the Executive Committee;

(ii) the names of the Executive Committee members present at each meeting of the Executive Committee; and

(iii) all resolutions and proceedings at all meetings of the Association: General Assembly meetings, Council of National Representatives meetings, Council of Organizational Representatives meetings, and Executive Committee meetings.

(h) decision on expulsion and/or suspension of members;

(i) generally, to engage in those activities which further the goals of the IASP, and drawing up of its own order of business within the framework of the Constitution.

Section 11: The Executive Committee will meet at least once per year in a face-to-face gathering. The Executive Committee may maintain regular contact by telephone, fax, post mail, e-mail, or similar means. Upon request from one-third of the members of the Executive Committee, the President must call a meeting of the Executive committee or circulate a written notice.

Section 12: A quorum of Executive Committee members may not vote in the absence of the President, unless there has been a vote to conduct a written ballot of all Executive Committee members. While the President must be present for votes by the Executive Committee, the President will only cast a vote in the case of a tie vote.

Section 13: The President shall chair Executive Committee meetings. If at any meeting the President is not present, the ranking Vice President will chair the meeting.

Section 14: The Executive Committee may delegate any of its powers to a sub-group consisting of three of more Executive Committee members. Any sub-group so formed shall conform to any regulations that may be imposed on it by the Executive Committee and shall report all acts and proceedings to the Executive Committee fully and promptly.

Section 15: Decisions and announcements of the Association must be signed by the President and two other members of the Executive Committee,

Section 16: A resolution in writing signed by all the members of the Executive Committee shall be as valid and effectual as if it had been passed at a meeting of the Executive Committee duly convened and held.

Section 17: A member of the Executive Committee shall not vote on any contract in which he/she has a financial or any other significant interest. If he/she does vote the vote shall not be counted and the matter shall be referred to the Executive Committee for resolution.

Section 18: Every member of the Executive Committee or other officer of the Association shall be indemnified out of the assets of the Association against any liability incurred by him/her in that capacity in defending any proceedings whether civil or criminal in which judgment is given in his/her favour or in which he/she is acquitted or connection with any application in which relief is granted to him/her by the court from liability from negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of trust in relation to the affairs of the Association.

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Article 10: Election Committee

Section 1: The Election Committee shall report to the executive committee. Its jurisdiction is limited to elections for Executive Committee positions, elections for National Representatives, and any votes to modify the Constitution.

Section 2: To prepare for the biannual election for Executive Committee positions the Election Committee shall, at least five months before the elections, write to all members of the Association calling for nominations in writing. Each member may nominate a maximum of one candidate for President, one for General Secretary, one for Treasurer, and three for Vice President. To be counted all nominees must be regular or honorary members in good standing and must have attained the age of 18 years. Tallying of the nominations and compiling the list of nominees shall be the function of the Election Committee. The final election ballot will contain the names of up to three candidates for each contested office (i.e., up to three for President, up to three for General Secretary, up to three for Treasurer, and up to nine for three Vice Presidential positions) A short biography of all nominees will be published in Crisis.

(a) Those persons who receive the greatest number of nominations will be recommended for a place on the election ballot, but the Election Committee is also charged with ensuring that the three main constituencies (i.e., volunteers, health professionals, and academics) are represented if possible. No member of the Election Committee may be proposed as a candidate for the Executive Committee. Once approved the Election Committee will ask those nominated whether they would be willing to accept the office if elected, then solicit a biography from those willing to run.

(b) After the willingness of all candidates has been confirmed, the Election Committee will mail the ballot to all regular, honorary, and organizational members. Distribution of the ballot is to take place no later than eight weeks before the beginning of the General Assembly.

(c) The election for Executive Committee will be conducted entirely by secret written ballot. Regular, honorary, and organizational members will vote for one person for each office from the names provided on the election ballot. The ballot will contain instructions to vote for one of up to three Presidential candidates one of up to three General Secretary candidates one of up to three Treasurer candidates and three of up to nine Vice Presidential candidates. Any vote for a name which does not appear on the election ballot will be disregarded, but votes for other valid names on the same ballot will be counted.

(d) Elections for Executive Committee positions are determined by a simple vote count --the candidate receiving the most number of votes is the victor. The three candidates receiving the most votes amongst the nine Vice-Presidential candidates will be declared the victors, in order of vote count (i.e., the candidate receiving the most votes will be declared First Vice-President, etc.). In case of a tie vote, the winner will be decided by the principle of international representation. To be considered valid, the election results are to be examined and certified according to the rule which follows (Article 10, Section 2 (f)).

(e) If a candidate on the ballot withdraws from the election after the ballot has been printed, but before the outcome of the election has been announced, votes for that candidate will simply not be counted. There will be no further attempt to adjust the ballot or any delays in conduct of that election.

(f) In the election of the Executive Committee, if the results were to violate the principle of international representation as outlined below, a change in the final count of the written ballots on this point will occur as follows:

(i) The total number of votes obtained by the candidates of any nationality which is elected to two or more offices of the Executive Committee will be compared with each other.

(ii) Only two members of a nationality elected to any position on the Executive Committee will remain according to the following priorities.

(a) The Presidential candidate receiving the greatest number of votes shall have first priority to remain on the Executive Committee,

(b) The chairperson of the Council of National Representatives and the chairperson of the Council of Organizational Representatives, who are ex-officio members of the Executive Committee, shall have second priority to remain on the Executive Committee, and

(c) That executive committee member elected to the Executive Committee who, when compared with other elected executive committee members of the same nationality, received the greatest number of votes, has next priority to remain on the Executive Committee.

(iii) After two members of a given nationality have been certified, all remaining members of the same nationality are excluded from serving on the Executive Committee. In their place will be substituted the candidate of another nationality who received the next highest number of votes after the excluded member for the specified office in the stated election. In case of a tie vote for any of the offices of President, Secretary General, Treasurer, and Vice President, another ballot will be mailed to all voting members priting the candidates with the same number of votes against each other.

Section 3: Once every four years, regular and honorary members will elect one National Representative for their own country of citizenship. The vote for National Representatives will be conducted by mail ballot under the supervision of the Election Committee, coinciding with biannual elections for the Executive Committee.

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Article 11: Judiciary Committee

Section 1: The Judiciary Committee shall make the final decision in cases of disagreement within the Association--whether the disagreement is between the Executive Committee and individual members, or among individual members. The Judiciary Committee will be composed as the need arises, and in such a way that each disagreeing party chooses two regular members to represent it on the Committee. The latter four must select a fifth regular member to act as chairperson of the Committee. This ad hoc committee will report to the executive committee.

Section 2: The Judiciary Committee will make its decisions without being bound by predetermined norms and in accordance with its best knowledge and conscience. Its decisions must be reached with an absolute majority. In case of a tie, the chairperson will cast the deciding vote.

Section 3: When the Judiciary Committee can reach no agreement about who will serve as chairperson, the decision will be reached by drawing lots among the nominees.

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Article 12: In General

Section 1: Any notice to be given to or by any person pursuant to this Constitution shall be in writing except that a notice calling a meeting of the Executive Committee need not be in writing. The Association may give any notice to a member either personally or by sending it by post to him/her or to his/her registered address or by leaving it at that address.

Section 2: The right to appeal any administrative and organizational decision of the Executive Committee to the jurisdiction of the General Assembly shall be exercised within 60 days of the announcement of the decision of the Executive Committee.

Section 3: All decisions of the Association require only a simple majority vote except where the rules and regulations for voting otherwise indicate. The election of members of the Executive Committee will be conducted by secret ballot: other business will be conducted by secret vote when so requested by a vote of one-third of the voting body.

Section 4: The Association in General Assembly shall have power to alter or repeal the Constitution and to make additions or alterations. The Executive Committee shall adopt such means as they deem sufficient to bring the Constitution to the notice of members of Association.

Section 5: In their relationship with the IASP, members shall acknowledge the jurisdiction of the place of residence of the Association, and the law valid in this place of residence as binding upon themselves.

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Article 13: Disbanding of the Association

Section 1: The disbanding of IASP can occur only by a vote of two-thirds of the qualified members. In the event of disbanding of the Association, any surplus in the Treasury will be donated to a charitable institution. Any outstanding deficit is to be borne according to dues paid by all the regular members by means of an assessment. The Executive Committee is responsible for the carrying out of the dissolving of the Association.

Section 2: Every member of the Association is responsible for payment of the debts and liabilities of the Association until one year after he/she ceases to be a member, such amount as may be required not exceeding fifty dollars (U.S.).

Section 3: If upon the winding-up or dissolution of the Association there remains, after the satisfaction of all its debts and liabilities, any property whatsoever, the same shall not be paid to or distributed among the members of the Association, but shall be given or transferred to some other charitable institution or institutions having objects similar to the objects of the

Association, such institution or institutions to be determined by the members of the Association at or before the time of dissolution, and if that cannot be done, then to some other charitable object.

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