National strategies for workplace suicide prevention

National Standard of Canada for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (Canada)

National Guidelines for Workplace Suicide Prevention (US)

2015 Australia National Guidelines: Men, Unemployment & Suicide


In Memoriam - Allison Milner

LaMontagne AD, Page A, Witt K (2019) In Memoriam: Dr Allison Joy Milner (1983-2019). Dec 20:1-2, doi: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000649. Crisis. https://doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000649



LaMontagne  - Chief Investigator F on “Preventing Suicide in Boys and Men”, funded by MRFF Million Minds Mission Suicide Prevention 2020-2024, $5,623,000.00. Pirkis J, Patton G, Oliffe J, Reavley N, Mihalopoulos C, LaMontagne AD, Rice S, Seidler Z, King K, Vella S.


Publications - reports

  1. Spencer-Thomas S. A Report of Findings to Direct the Development of National Guidelines for Workplace Suicide Prevention. Available from workplacesuicideprevention.com launched October 10, 2019.
  2. LaMontagne AD, Shann C (2020): Mates in Construction Workplace Suicide Prevention Program: Articulation of Program Logic. Brisbane: MATES. Open access at https://mates.org.au/media/documents/Program-Logic-27.7.2020.pdf
  3. LaMontagne AD, Dollard MF (2020): Getting back to work: How can we reshape work to benefit everyone?  Life and Health Re-imagined Series, Paper 1 – 2020.  Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.  https://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/-/media/ResourceCentre/Life-and-Health-Re-imagined---Paper-1---Getting-back-to-work-June2020.pdf?la=en&hash=6508C4625668050C23E16EC6C60213D15BF5EE76


Recent Publications - peer-reviewed

  1. Frey, J., Spencer-Thomas, S. & Mosby, A. (2019). Preventing suicide in the workplace: New guidelines, recommendations issued. Journal of Employee Assistance, pp. 22-34.
  2. Reid A, Daly A, LaMontagne AD, Milner A, Perez ER (2020): Descriptive study of workplace demand, control and bullying among migrant and Australian-born workers by gender: does workplace support make a difference? BMJ Open 10:e033652. https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033652
  3. Niedhammer I, Milner A, Geoffroy-Perez B, Coutrot T, LaMontagne AD, Chastang JF (2020 Jun27, online ahead of print): Psychosocial factors at work from the job strain model and preventable mortality in France: the STRESSJEM prospective study. Preventive Medicine, doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106178
  4. Kyron M, Rikkers W, Page A, O’Brien P, Bartlett J, LaMontagne AD, Lawrence D (2020 Jul 2, online ahead of print): Prevalence and predictors of suicidal thoughts and behaviours among Australian police and emergency services employees. ANZ Journal of Psychiatry, doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004867420937774
  5. LaMontagne AD, Too LS, Punnett K, and Milner AJ (2020): Changes in job security and mental health: A 14-year analysis of an Australian working population panel survey. Am J Epidemiol doi: 10.1093/aje/kwaa038, Epub3 Apr 2020. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa038
  6. Niedhammer I, Milner A, Coutrot T, Geoffroy-Perez B, LaMontagne AD, Chastang JF (2020): Psychosocial work exposures of the job strain model and suicide in France: results from the STRESSJEM prospective study of 1.5 million men and women over 26 years of follow-up. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506713, pp 1-4, Epub 23 Mar 2020.
  7. Smith P, LaMontagne AD, Lilley R, Hogg-Johnson S, Sim, M (2020): Are there differences in the return to work process for work-related psychological and musculoskeletal conditions? A longitudinal path analysis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, doi: https://dx.doi.org/10/1007/s00127-020-01839-3, Epub 12 Feb 2020.
  8. Taouk Y, LaMontagne AD, Spittal M, Milner A. (2020): Psychosocial work stressors and risk of mortality in Australia: analysis of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Occup Environ Medicine, doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2019-106001 Epub 23 Jan 2020
  9. Petrie K, Crawford J, LaMontagne AD, Milner A, Dean J, Veness B, Christensen H, Harvey SB (2020): Working hours, common mental disorder and suicidal ideation among junior doctors: a cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open, 10(1), e033525. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033525. Pub Jan 21, 2020.
  10. Taouk Y, Spittal M, LaMontagne AD, Milner A (2020): Psychosocial work stressors and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Scan J Work Env Health,46(1):19-31, doi:10.5271/sjweh.3854. Epub Oct 15, 2019. https://www.sjweh.fi/show_abstract.php?abstract_id=3854
  11. Kyron MJ, Rikkers W, Bartlett J, LaMontagne AD, Lawrence D (2019): Work-related and non-work stressors, PTSD, and psychological distress: Prevalence and attributable burden among Australian police and emergency services employees. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, doi: 10.1037/tra0000536. Epub 2 Dec 2019. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000536
  12. Gayed A, Tan L, LaMontagne AD, Milner A, Deady M, Milligan-Saville JS, Madan I, Calvo RA, Christensen H, Mykletun A, Glozier N, Harvey SB. (2019): A comparison of face-to-face and online training in improving managers’ confidence to support the mental health of their subordinates. Internet Interventions, 18:100258, doi:10.1016/j.invent.2019.100258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2019.100258
  13. Niedhammer I, Milner A, Geoffroy-Perez B, Coutrot,T,  LaMontagne AD, Chastang JF (2019): Prospective associations of psychosocial work exposures and mortality in France: STRESSJEM study protocol. BMJ Open 9(10), doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2019-031352 https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019- 031352
  14. Aitken Z, Kavanagh A, Milner A, LaMontagne AD, Simpson J, Bentley RJ. (2019): Does the effect of disability acquisition on mental health differ by employment characteristics? A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, doi:10.1007/s00127-019-01783-x. Epub Oct 24, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-019-01783-x
  15. Liu X, Bowe SJ, Milner A, Li L, Too LS, LaMontagne AD (2019): Job insecurity: a comparative analysis between migrant and native workers in Australia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4159; Epub Oct 28, 2019. https://w.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/21/4159/pdf
  16. Magnusson Hanson LL, Rod NH, Vahtera J, Turun Y, Peristera P, Pentti J,  Rugulies R, Madsen I, LaMontagne AD, Milner A, Lange T, Suominen S, Stenholm S,  Xu T, Kivimaki M,     Westerlund H (2019): A multicohort study of change in job strain, poor mental health, and incident cardiometabolic disease. Occup & Environ Medicine, 76(11):785-792, https://doi.org10.1136/oemd-2018-105595. Epub Sep 5, 2019.
  17. Milner A, Shields M, King T, Aitken Z, LaMontagne AD, Kavanagh A (2019): Disabling working environments: A commentary, Disability & Health Journal, 12(4):537-541, Epub Jun 15 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2019.06.002
  18. Milner A, King T, Scovelle AJ, Betterham PJ, Kelly B, LaMontagne AD, Harvey SB, Gullestrup J, Lockwood C. (2019): A blended face-to-face and smartphone intervention for suicide prevention in the construction industry: protocol for a randomized controlled trial with MATES in Construction. BMC Psychiatry. 19(1):146, doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2142-3https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2142-3
  19. Milner A, Aitken Z, Witt K, LaMontagne AD, Law P. (2019): The relationship between an electronic mental health stigma campaign and suicidal thoughts and behaviours: a two-arm randomised controlled trial in the Australian construction industry. Health Promotion International. doi: 10.1093/heapro/daz034. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daz034
  20. Gayed A, Bryan B, LaMontagne AD, Milner A, Deady M, Calvo R, Mackinnon A, Christensen H, Mykletun A, Glozier N, Harvey S. (2019):  A cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate HeadCoach: an online mental health training program for workplace managers. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 61(7):545-551, doi: 0.1097/JOM.0000000000001597. Epub Mar 30 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30121527
  21. Ahlin JK, LaMontagne AD, Magnusson Hanson LL (2019): Are there bidirectional relationships between psychosocial work characteristics and depressive symptoms? A fixed effects analysis of Swedish national panel survey data. Occup & Environ Medicine. 76(7):455-461, doi: 10.1136/oemed-2018-105450. Epub May 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2018-105450
  22. Milner A, Petrie D, LaMontagne AD, Butterworth P (2019): Do psychosocial job stressors drive mental health service use? Evidence from an Australian Cohort. Occup & Environ Medicine, 76:295-301, doi:10.1136/oemed-2018-105440. Epub ahead of print 09/03/19  http://oem.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/oemed-2018-105440
  23. Daly A, Carey RN, Darcey E, Chih, H, LaMontagne, AD, Milner A, Reid A (2019): Using three cross sectional surveys to compare workplace psychosocial stressors and associated mental health status in six migrant groups working in Australia compared with Australian born workers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 16(5):735; doi:ijerph16050735.  https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/5/735/pdf
  24. King T, Batterham P, Lingard H, Gullestrup J, Lockwood C, Harvey S, Kelly B, LaMontagne AD, Milner A (2019): Are young men getting the message? Age differences in suicide prevention literacy among male construction workers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 16(3), 475; doi:10.3390/ijerph16030475. http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/3/475/pdf
  25. Witt K. Milner A, Chastang JF, LaMontagne AD, Niedhammer I (2019): Employment and occupational outcomes following adolescent-onset mental illness: Analysis of a nationally representative French cohort.  J Public Health, 41(3):618-627, doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdy160, https://academic.oup.com/jpubhealth/advance-article/doi/10.1093/pubmed/fdy160/5106597?guestAccessKey=35624ea2-ff53-4eb5-bbf8-f895d1c5090e


Further Research

  1. King T, Batterham P, Lingard H, Gullestrup J, Kelly B, Lockwood C, Harvey SB, LaMontagne AD, Milner A (2019). Are Young Men Getting the Message? Age Differences in Suicide Prevention Literacy among Male Construction Workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16, 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030475
  2. Milner A, LaMontagne AD (2018). Suicide in the employed population: A review of epidemiology, risk factors and prevention activities. Work and Health: Scientific Scripture Series (Swedish journal, peer reviewed). 52(5): 1-39.
  3. Milner A, King T (2019). Men's work, women's work and suicide: A retrospective mortality study assessing the contributions of socio-economic status, age, mental illness and gendered occupational context to suicide. ANZJPH. https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12859
  4. King T, Gullestrup J, Batterham P, Kelly B, Lockwood C, Lingard H, Harvey SB, LaMontagne AD, Milner A (2018). Shifting beliefs about suicide: pre-post evaluation of the effectiveness of a program for workers in the construction industry. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 15(10), 2106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102106
  5. Hom, M. A., Stanley, I. H., Spencer-Thomas, S., & Joiner, T. E. (2018). Examining exposure to suicide and suicide bereavement among women firefighters: Associated suicidality and psychiatric symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, PMID 30022494 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22674
  6. Hom, M. A., Stanley, I. H., Spencer-Thomas, S., & Joiner, T.E. (2018). Mental health service use and help-seeking among women firefighters with a career history of suicidality. Psychological Services, 5: 316-324. PMID 30080090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000202
  7. Hom, M. A., Stanley, I. H., Spencer-Thomas, S., & Joiner, T. E. Women firefighters and workplace harassment: Associated suicidality and mental health sequelae. (2017). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, (12):910-917. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000759
  8. Gallyer, A. J., Dougherty, S. P., Gai, A. R., Stanley, I. H., Hom, M. A., Rogers, M. L., Duffy, M. E., Buchman-Schmitt, J. M., Spencer-Thomas, S., & Joiner, T. E. (2018). Problematic alcohol use and suicidal ideation among firefighters: A multi-study investigation of the explanatory roles of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Journal of Affective Disorders, 238: 281–288. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.05.045
  9. Stanley, I. H., Hom, M. A., Chu, C., Dougherty, S. P., Gallyer, A. J., Spencer-Thomas, S., Shelef, L., Fruchter, E., Comtois, K. A., Gutierrez, P. M., Sachs-Ericsson, N. J., & Joiner, T. E. (2018). Perceptions of belongingness and social support attenuate PTSD symptom severity among firefighters: A multi-study investigation. Psychological Services. DOI: 10.1037/ser0000240.
  10. Spencer-Thomas, S. & Stohlmann-Rainey, J. (2017). Workplaces and the aftermath of suicide. In Andriessen, K., Krysinska, K. & Grad, O. (Eds). Postvention in Action. Hogrefe: Boston, MA.
  11. Andriessen, K., Krysinska, K. & Grad, O. (Eds). Postvention in Action. Hogrefe: Boston, MA.
  12. Stanley, I. H., Hom, M. A., Spencer-Thomas, S., & Joiner, T. E. (2017). Examining anxiety sensitivity as a mediator of the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 50, 94-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2017.06.003 19.
  13. Stanley, I. H., Hom, M. A., Spencer-Thomas, S., & Joiner, T. E. (2017). Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters: An examination of associated features and comparison of pre-career and career prevalence rates.Journal of Affective Disorders, 221, 107-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.06.016
  14. Milner A., Page K.M., Spencer-Thomas S., Lamotagne A.D. (2014). Workplace suicide prevention: a systematic review of published and unpublished activities. Health Promotion International. doi:10.1093/heapro/dau085
  15. Paul, R. & Spencer-Thomas, S. (2012). Changing workplace culture to end the suicide standstill. National Council Magazine. (2), 126-127.
  16. Iliceto P, Pompili M, Spencer-Thomas S, Ferracuti S, Erbuto D, Lester D, Candilera G, & Girardi P. (2012). Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: An explorative study with the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model approach. Stress, (2), 143-152.
  17. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2012). Developing a workplace suicide prevention program. Journal of Employee Assistance, 42(1), 12-15.
  18. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2011, Fourth Quarter). Working Minds: What workplaces can do to prevent suicide. Mental Health Works, pp. 17-22.
  19. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2011, July). High performers and suicide prevention in the workplace. Psychiatric Annals, 41(7), 343-344.
  20. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2011, January).Making mental health matter: Best practices for suicide prevention in the workplace. EA Report Brown Bagger, 1-4.
  21. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2011, January). 'It can never happen here.': Suicide postvention in the workplace. EA Report, 14(1), 1-3.
  22. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2011, January). What to do when a suicide impacts a workplace: Containment, support, and reintegration, Advisor (A newsletter for Colorado’s HR Association).


Other Publications 

  1. Nixon, B. (2020) Workplace Violence Today, https://en.calameo.com/read/00431137611e3f6867698
  2. Berardelli, I., Spencer-Thomas, S., Germano, L., Barbetti, A. & Pompili, M. (at press).  Suicide and suicide risk in physicians. Chapter in Riba, M, McFarlain, D & Grazzi, L. (Eds) Burnout, Depression and suicide among physicians. Insights from Oncology and other medical specialties. London: Springer-Nature.
  3. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2020). Use a tiered approach to training on suicide prevention in the workplace. Construction Executive. Retrieved on August 24, 2020 from https://www.constructionexec.com/article/use-a-tiered-approach--to-training-on-suicide-prevention-in-the-workplace.
  4. Lyons, T., Spencer-Thomas, S. & Waterhouse, H. (2020). Reduce workplace mental health hazards with the hierarchy of controls for psychological safety: Why workplace mental health programs may be missing the mark. Construction Executive. Retrieved on August 24, 2020 from https://constructionexec.com/article/reduce-workplace-mental-health-hazards-with-the-hierarchy-of-controls-for-psychological-safety
  5. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2019). A New Challenge Facing Construction Risk Management:  Why Addressing Addiction, Mental Health, and Suicide Matters in Workplace Health and Safety. New York: Chubb Global Risk Advisors.
  6. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2019, Spring/Summer). We can’t fix mental health with duct tape: A new frontier in safety. Safety Decisions Magazine, pp. 12-21
  7. Spencer-Thomas, S. (2019). National Guidelines for Workplace Suicide Prevention: Take the Pledge to Make Suicide Prevention a Health and Safety Priority. Body of Knowledge. VPPPA. Retrieved on August 24, 2020 from https://www.vpppa.org/body-of-knowledge/blogs/national-guidelines-for-workplace-suicide-prevention-take-the-pledge-to-make-suicide-prevention-a-health-and-safety-priority.
  8. Mittag, A. (2018). What every HR exec needs to know about suicide in the workplace. Retrieved on June 6, 2019 from https://lifespeak.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/07-12-2018-BenefitsPRO-Workplace-Suicide.pdf
  9. Andrus, D. (2018, September 11) A risky business—Examining suicide in construction: Why do so many construction workers take their own lives? https://coloradobuildermag.com/business-management/insurance/a-risky-business-examining-suicide-in-construction/

International Presentations

  1. Keynote: Spencer-Thomas, S. (2019). International Pilot Peer Assist Coalition Conference in Dallas, Texas.
  2. Keynote: Spencer-Thomas, S. (2019). Environmental Health & Safety Officers Council in Phoenix, AZ.


Programmatic and Social Media activities

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